Known Issues πŸ”—︎

Having problems with kind? This guide is covers some known problems and solutions / workarounds.

It may additionally be helpful to:

Contents πŸ”—︎

Kubectl Version Skew πŸ”—︎

You may have problems interacting with your kind cluster if your client(s) are skewed too far from the kind node version. Kubernetes only supports limited skew between clients and the API server.

This is a issue that frequently occurs when running kind alongside Docker For Mac.

This problem is related to a bug in docker on macOS

If you see something like the following error message:

$ kubectl edit deploy -n kube-system kubernetes-dashboard
error: SchemaError(io.k8s.api.autoscaling.v2beta1.ExternalMetricStatus): invalid object doesn't have additional properties

You can check your client and server versions by running:

kubectl version

If there is a mismatch between the server and client versions, you should install a newer client version.

If you are using Mac, you can install kubectl via homebrew by running:

brew install kubernetes-cli

And overwrite the symlinks created by Docker For Mac by running:

brew link --overwrite kubernetes-cli

Older Docker Installations πŸ”—︎

kind is known to have issues with Kubernetes 1.13 or lower when using Docker versions:

And possibly other old versions of Docker.

With these versions you must use Kubernetes >= 1.14, or more ideally upgrade Docker instead.

kind is tested with a recent stable docker-ce release.

Docker on Btrfs or ZFS πŸ”—︎

kind cannot run properly if containers on your machine / host are backed by a Btrfs or ZFS filesystem.

This should only be relevant on Linux, on which you can check with:

docker info | grep -i storage

As a workaround, you'll need to ensure that the storage driver is one that works. Docker's default of overlay2 is a good choice, but aufs should also work.

You can set the storage driver with the following configuration in /etc/docker/daemon.json:

  "storage-driver": "overlay2"

After restarting the Docker daemon you should see that Docker is now using the overlay2 storage driver instead of btrfs.

NOTE: You'll need to make sure the backing filesystem is not btrfs / ZFS as well, which may require creating a partition on your host disk with a suitable filesystem and ensuring Docker's data root is on this (by default /var/lib/docker). Ext4 is a reasonable choice.

Docker Installed with Snap πŸ”—︎

If you installed Docker with snap, it is likely that docker commands do not have access to $TMPDIR. This may break some kind commands which depend on using temp directories (kind build ...).

Currently a workaround for this is setting the TEMPDIR environment variable to a directory snap does have access to when working with kind. This can for example be some directory under $HOME.

Failing to apply overlay network πŸ”—︎

There are two known causes for problems while applying the overlay network while building a kind cluster:

If you see something like the following error message:

 βœ— [kind-1-control-plane] Starting Kubernetes (this may take a minute) ☸
FATA[07:20:43] Failed to create cluster: failed to apply overlay network: exit status 1

or the following, when setting the loglevel flag to debug,

DEBU[16:26:53] Running: /usr/bin/docker [docker exec --privileged kind-1-control-plane /bin/sh -c kubectl apply --kubeconfig=/etc/kubernetes/admin.conf -f "$(kubectl version --kubeconfig=/etc/kubernetes/admin.conf | base64 | tr -d '\n')"]
ERRO[16:28:25] failed to apply overlay network: exit status 1 ) ☸
 βœ— [control-plane] Starting Kubernetes (this may take a minute) ☸
ERRO[16:28:25] failed to apply overlay network: exit status 1
DEBU[16:28:25] Running: /usr/bin/docker [docker ps -q -a --no-trunc --filter label=io.k8s.sigs.kind.cluster --format {{.Names}}\t{{.Label "io.k8s.sigs.kind.cluster"}} --filter label=io.k8s.sigs.kind.cluster=1]
DEBU[16:28:25] Running: /usr/bin/docker [docker rm -f -v kind-1-control-plane]
⠈⠁ [control-plane] Pre-loading images πŸ‹ Error: failed to create cluster: failed to apply overlay network: exit status 1

The issue may be due to your host machine being behind a proxy, such as in kind#136. We are currently looking into ways of mitigating this issue by preloading CNI artifacts, see kind#200. Another possible solution is to enable kind nodes to use a proxy when downloading images, see kind#270.

The last known case for this issue comes from the host machine using Docker 18.09 in kind#136. In this case, a known solution is to upgrade to any Docker version greater than or equal to Docker 18.09.1.

Failure to build node image πŸ”—︎

Building kind's node image may fail due to running out of memory on Docker for Mac or Docker for Windows. See kind#229.

If you see something like this:

/usr/local/go/pkg/tool/linux_amd64/link: signal: killed
!!! [0116 08:30:53] Call tree:
!!! [0116 08:30:53]  1: /go/src/ kube::golang::build_some_binaries(...)
!!! [0116 08:30:53]  2: /go/src/ kube::golang::build_binaries_for_platform(...)
!!! [0116 08:30:53]  3: hack/make-rules/ kube::golang::build_binaries(...)
!!! [0116 08:30:53] Call tree:
!!! [0116 08:30:53]  1: hack/make-rules/ kube::golang::build_binaries(...)
!!! [0116 08:30:53] Call tree:
!!! [0116 08:30:53]  1: hack/make-rules/ kube::golang::build_binaries(...)
make: *** [all] Error 1
Makefile:92: recipe for target 'all' failed
!!! [0116 08:30:54] Call tree:
!!! [0116 08:30:54]  1: build/../build/ kube::build::run_build_command_ex(...)
!!! [0116 08:30:54]  2: build/ kube::build::run_build_command(...)
make: *** [quick-release-images] Error 1
ERRO[08:30:54] Failed to build Kubernetes: failed to build images: exit status 2
Error: error building node image: failed to build kubernetes: failed to build images: exit status 2
  kind build node-image [flags]

      --base-image string   name:tag of the base image to use for the build (default "kindest/base:v20181203-d055041")
  -h, --help                help for node-image
      --image string        name:tag of the resulting image to be built (default "kindest/node:latest")
      --kube-root string    Path to the Kubernetes source directory (if empty, the path is autodetected)
      --type string         build type, one of [bazel, docker] (default "docker")

Global Flags:
      --loglevel string   logrus log level [panic, fatal, error, warning, info, debug] (default "warning")

error building node image: failed to build kubernetes: failed to build images: exit status 2

Then you may try increasing the resource limits for the Docker engine on Mac or Windows.

It is recommended that you allocate at least 8GB of RAM to build Kubernetes.

Open the Preferences menu.

Go to the Advanced settings page, and change the settings there, see changing Docker's resource limits.

Setting 8Gb of memory in Docker for Mac

Setting 8Gb of memory in Docker for Windows

Failing to properly start cluster πŸ”—︎

This issue is similar to a failure while building the node image. If the cluster creation process was successful but you are unable to see any Kubernetes resources running, for example:

$ docker ps
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE                  COMMAND                  CREATED              STATUS              PORTS                      NAMES
c0261f7512fd        kindest/node:v1.12.2   "/usr/local/bin/entr…"   About a minute ago   Up About a minute>64907/tcp   kind-1-control-plane
$ docker exec -it c0261f7512fd /bin/sh
# docker ps -a
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE               COMMAND             CREATED             STATUS              PORTS               NAMES

or kubectl being unable to connect to the cluster,

$ kind export kubeconfig
$ kubectl cluster-info

To further debug and diagnose cluster problems, use 'kubectl cluster-info dump'.
Unable to connect to the server: EOF

Then as in kind#156, you may solve this issue by claiming back some space on your machine by removing unused data or images left by the Docker engine by running:

docker system prune

And / or:

docker image prune

You can verify the issue by exporting the logs (kind export logs) and looking at the kubelet logs, which may have something like the following:

Dec 07 00:37:53 kind-1-control-plane kubelet[688]: I1207 00:37:53.229561     688 eviction_manager.go:340] eviction manager: must evict pod(s) to reclaim ephemeral-storage
Dec 07 00:37:53 kind-1-control-plane kubelet[688]: E1207 00:37:53.229638     688 eviction_manager.go:351] eviction manager: eviction thresholds have been met, but no pods are active to evict

If on the other hand you are running kind on a btrfs partition and your logs show something like the following:

F0103 17:42:41.470269 3804 kubelet.go:1359] Failed to start ContainerManager failed to get rootfs info: failed to get device for dir "/ var/lib/kubelet": could not find device with major: 0, minor: 67 in cached partitions map

This problem seems to be related to a bug in Docker.

Pod errors due to “too many open files” πŸ”—︎

This may be caused by running out of inotify resources. Resource limits are defined by fs.inotify.max_user_watches and fs.inotify.max_user_instances system variables. For example, in Ubuntu these default to 8192 and 128 respectively, which is not enough to create a cluster with many nodes.

To increase these limits temporarily run the following commands on the host:

sudo sysctl fs.inotify.max_user_watches=524288
sudo sysctl fs.inotify.max_user_instances=512

To make the changes persistent, edit the file /etc/sysctl.conf and add these lines:

fs.inotify.max_user_watches = 524288
fs.inotify.max_user_instances = 512

Docker permission denied πŸ”—︎

When using kind, we assume that the user you are executing kind as has permission to use docker. If you initially ran Docker CLI commands using sudo, you may see the following error, which indicates that your ~/.docker/ directory was created with incorrect permissions due to the sudo commands.

WARNING: Error loading config file: /home/user/.docker/config.json
open /home/user/.docker/config.json: permission denied

To fix this problem, either follow the docker's docs manage docker as a non root user, or try to use sudo before your commands (if you get command not found please check this comment about sudo with kind).

Windows Containers πŸ”—︎

Docker Desktop for Windows supports running both Linux (the default) and Windows Docker containers.

kind for Windows requires Linux containers. To switch between Linux and Windows containers see this page.

Windows containers are not like Linux containers and do not support running docker in docker and therefore cannot support kind.

Non-AMD64 Architectures πŸ”—︎

KIND does not currently ship pre-built images for non-amd64 architectures. In the future we may, but currently demand has been low and the cost to build has been high.

To use kind on other architectures, you need to first build a base image and then build a node image.

Run images/base/ and then taking note of the built image name use kind build node-image --base-image=kindest/base:tag-i-built.

There are more details about how to do this in the Quick Start guide.

Unable to pull images πŸ”—︎

When using named KIND instances you may sometimes see your images failing to pull correctly on pods. This will usually manifest itself with the following output when doing a kubectl describe pod my-pod

Failed to pull image "": rpc error: code = Unknown desc = failed to resolve image "": no available registry endpoint: pull access denied, repository does not exist or may require authorization: server message: insufficient_scope: authorization failed

If this image has been loaded onto your kind cluster using the command kind load docker-image my-custom-image then you have likely not provided the name parameter.

Re-run the command this time adding the --name my-cluster-name param:

kind load docker-image my-custom-image --name my-cluster-name

Chrome OS πŸ”—︎

Kubernetes does not work in the Chrome OS Linux sandbox.

Please see the upstream issue

For previous discussion see:

AppArmor πŸ”—︎

If your host has AppArmor enabled you may run into moby/moby/issues/7512.

You will likely need to disable apparmor on your host or at least any profile(s) related to applications you are trying to run in KIND.

See Previous Discussion: kind#1179